```"An exact representation of a positive whole number,
negative whole number, or zero. The largest and smallest
representable values are platform-dependent:

- For the JVM runtime, integer values between
-2<sup>63</sup> and 2<sup>63</sup>-1 may be represented
without overflow.
- For the JavaScript runtime, integer values with a
magnitude no greater than 2<sup>53</sup> may be
represented without loss of precision.

Overflow or loss of precision occurs silently (with no
exception raised).

An integer is considered equal to its [[float]]
representation, if that exists. That is, for every integer
`int`, either `int.float` throws an [[OverflowException]],
or the expression `int.float==int` evaluates to `true`.

An integer is representable as a sequence of bits. Not all
of the bits in the representation may be addressed by the
methods inherited from [[Binary]]:

- For the JVM runtime, the bits at all indices (0 to 63)
- For the JavaScript runtime, the bits at indices 0 to 31

Literal integers may be written in decimal, hexadecimal, or
binary notation:

8660
#21D4
\$10000111010100

Underscores may be used to group digits:

8660
#21_D4
\$10_0001_1101_0100"
see (`value runtime.integerSize`)
tagged("Basic types", "Numbers")
shared native final class Integer
extends Object
satisfies Integral<Integer> &
Binary<Integer> &
Exponentiable<Integer,Integer> {

"The sum of all the integers in the given stream, or
`0` if the stream is empty."
since("1.3.2")
shared static Integer sum({Integer*} integers) {
variable value sum = 0;
for (int in integers) {
sum += int;
}
return sum;
}

"The product of all the integers in the given stream, or
`1` if the stream is empty."
since("1.3.2")
shared static Integer product({Integer*} integers) {
variable value product = 1;
for (int in integers) {
product *= int;
}
return product;
}

"The largest integer in the given stream, or `null` if
the stream is empty."
since("1.3.2")
shared static Integer|Absent max<Absent>
(Iterable<Integer,Absent> integers)
given Absent satisfies Null {
variable value first = true;
variable value max = 0;
for (x in integers) {
if (first) {
first = false;
max = x;
}
else if (x > max) {
max = x;
}
}
if (first) {
assert (is Absent null);
return null;
}
else {
return max;
}
}

"The smallest integer in the given stream, or `null` if
the stream is empty."
since("1.3.2")
shared static Integer|Absent min<Absent>
(Iterable<Integer,Absent> integers)
given Absent satisfies Null {
variable value first = true;
variable value min = 0;
for (x in integers) {
if (first) {
first = false;
min = x;
}
else if (x < min) {
min = x;
}
}
if (first) {
assert (is Absent null);
return null;
}
else {
return min;
}
}

"The smaller of the two given integers."
since("1.3.2")
shared static Integer smallest(Integer x, Integer y)
=>  if (x < y) then x else y;

"The larger of the two given integers."
since("1.3.2")
shared static Integer largest(Integer x, Integer y)
=>  if (x > y) then x else y;

"The [[Integer]] value of the given
[[string representation|string]] of an integer value in
the base given by [[radix]], or `null` if the string
does not represent an integer in that base, or if the
mathematical integer it represents is too large in
magnitude to be represented by an instance of the class
`Integer`.

The syntax accepted by this function depends upon the

- For base 10, the accepted syntax is the same as the
syntax for an `Integer` literal in the Ceylon
language except that it may optionally begin with a
sign character (`+` or `-`) and may not contain
grouping underscore characters. That is, an optional
sign character, followed by a string of decimal
digits, followed by an optional SI magnitude:
`k`, `M`, `G`, `T`, or `P`.
- For other bases, the accepted syntax is an optional
sign character, followed by a string of digits of the
given base.

The given `radix` specifies the base of the string
representation. The list of available digits starts
from `0` to `9`, followed by `a` to `z`. When parsing
in a specific base, the first `radix` digits from the
available digits list is used. This function is not
case sensitive; `a` and `A` both correspond to the
digit `a` whose decimal value is `10`.

Integer: Base10 | BaseN
Base10: Sign? Base10Digits Magnitude
BaseN: Sign? BaseNDigits
Sign: '+' | '-'
Magnitude: 'k' | 'M' | 'G' | 'T' | 'P'
Base10Digits: ('0'..'9')+
BaseNDigits: ('0'..'9'|'a'..'z'|'A'..'Z')+"
throws (`class AssertionError`,
see (`function format`, `function Float.parse`)
tagged("Numbers", "Basic types")
since("1.3.1")
shared static Integer|ParseException parse(
"The string representation to parse."
String string,
inclusive."

"The string representation of the given [[integer]] in
the base given by [[radix]]. If the given integer is
[[negative|Integer.negative]], the string
representation will begin with `-`. Digits consist of
decimal digits `0` to `9`, together with and lowercase
letters `a` to `z` for bases greater than 10.

For example:

- `Integer.format(-46)` is `\"-46\"`
- `Integer.format(9,2)` is `\"1001\"`
- `Integer.format(10,8)` is `\"12\"`
- `Integer.format(511,16)` is `\"1ff\"`
- `Integer.format(512,32)` is `\"g0\"`"
throws (`class AssertionError`,
see (`function parse`, `function Float.format`)
tagged("Numbers")
since("1.3.1")
shared static String format(
"The integer value to format."
Integer integer,
inclusive."
"If not `null`, `groupingSeparator` will be used to
separate each group of three digits if `radix` is
10 (the default), or each group of four digits if

`groupingSeparator` may not be '-', a digit as
defined by the Unicode general category *Nd*, or a
letter as defined by the Unicode general categories
*Lu, Ll, Lt, Lm, and Lo*."
Character? groupingSeparator = null)
groupingSeparator);

shared new (Integer integer) extends Object() {}

"The UTF-32 character with this UCS code point."
throws (`class OverflowException`,
"if this integer is not in the range
`0..#10FFFF` of legal Unicode code points")
shared native Character character;

shared actual native Integer negated;

shared actual native Integer plus(Integer other);
shared actual native Integer minus(Integer other);
shared actual native Integer times(Integer other);
shared actual native Integer divided(Integer other);
shared actual native Integer remainder(Integer other);
since("1.2.0")
shared actual native Integer modulo(Integer modulus);

"Determines if this integer is a factor of the given
integer, that is, if `remainder(other)==0 `."
shared actual native Boolean divides(Integer other)
=> other % this == 0;

"The result of raising this number to the given
non-negative integer power, where `0^0` evaluates to
`1`."
throws (`class AssertionError`,
"if the given [[power|other]] is negative")
shared actual native Integer power(Integer other);

"Determines if the given object is equal to this `Integer`,
that is, if:

- the given object is an `Integer` representing the
same whole number.

Or if:

- the given object is a [[Float]],
- its value is neither [[Float.undefined]], nor
[[infinity]],
- the [[fractional part|Float.fractionalPart]] of its
value equals `0.0`, and
- the [[integer part|Float.integer]] part of its value
equals this integer, and
- this integer is between -2<sup>53</sup> and
2<sup>53</sup> (exclusive)."
shared actual native Boolean equals(Object that);

"The hash code of this `Integer`, which is just the
`Integer` itself, except on the JVM platform where, as
with all `hash` codes, this 64-bit `Integer` value is
truncated to 32 bits by taking the exclusive
disjunction of the 32 lowest-order bits with the 32
highest-order bits, that is:

int.hash == int.rightArithmeticShift(32).exclusiveOr(int)"
shared actual native Integer hash => this;

"Compare this integer with the given integer, returning:

- `smaller`, if `this < other`,
- `larger`, if `this > other`, or
- `equal`, if `this == other`."
shared actual native Comparison compare(Integer other)
=>   if (this < other) then smaller
else if (this > other) then larger
else equal;

function indexInRange(Integer index)
=> 0 <= index < runtime.integerAddressableSize;

=> 1.leftLogicalShift(index);

"If the `index` is for an addressable bit, the value of
that bit. Otherwise false."
shared actual native Boolean get(Integer index)
=> indexInRange(index)
else false;

"If the `index` is for an addressable bit, an instance
with the same addressable bits as this instance, but
with that bit cleared. Otherwise an instance with the
same addressable bits as this instance."
shared actual native Integer clear(Integer index)
=> indexInRange(index)
else this;

"If the `index` is for an addressable bit, an instance
with the same addressable bits as this instance, but
with that bit flipped. Otherwise an instance with the
same addressable bits as this instance."
shared actual native Integer flip(Integer index)
=> indexInRange(index)
else this;

"If the `index` is for an addressable bit, an instance
with the same addressable bits as this instance, but
with that bit set to `bit`. Otherwise an instance with
the same addressable bits as this instance."
shared actual native Integer set(Integer index, Boolean bit)
=> indexInRange(index)
else this;

shared actual native Integer not;
shared actual native Integer or(Integer other);
shared actual native Integer xor(Integer other);
shared actual native Integer and(Integer other);

"If the given [[shift]] is in the range of
given by

shift the addressable bits to the right by `shift`
positions, using sign extension to fill in the most
significant bits. Otherwise shift the
addressable bits to the right by

positions, using sign extension."
shared actual native Integer rightArithmeticShift(Integer shift);

"If the given [[shift]] is in the range of
given by

shift the addressable bits to the right by `shift`
positions, using zero extension to fill in the most
significant bits. Otherwise shift the addressable bits
to the right by

positions, using zero extension."
aliased ("rightShift")
shared actual native Integer rightLogicalShift(Integer shift);

"If the given [[shift]] is in the range of
given by

shift the addressable bits to the left by `shift`
positions, using zero extension to fill in the least
significant bits. Otherwise shift the addressable bits
to the left by

positions, using zero extension."
aliased ("leftShift")
shared actual native Integer leftLogicalShift(Integer shift);

"The number, represented as a [[Float]], if such a
representation is possible.

- Any integer with [[magnitude]] smaller than
[[runtime.maxExactIntegralFloat]] (2<sup>53</sup>)
has such a representation.
- For larger integers on the JVM platform, an
[[OverflowException]] is thrown. If this behavior is
throws (`class OverflowException`,
"if the number cannot be represented as a `Float`
without loss of precision, that is, if

this.magnitude>runtime.maxExactIntegralFloat

(Note that [[nearestFloat]] does not produce an
exception in this case.)")
see (`value runtime.maxExactIntegralFloat`,
`value nearestFloat`)
since("1.1.0")
shared native Float float;

"The nearest [[Float]] to this number.

- For any integer with [[magnitude]] smaller than
[[runtime.maxExactIntegralFloat]] (2<sup>53</sup>),
this is a `Float` with the exact same mathematical
value (and the same value as [[float]]).
- For larger integers on the JVM platform, the `Floats`
are less dense than the `Integers` so there may be
loss of precision.

This method never throws an [[OverflowException]]."
see (`value float`)
since("1.2.0")
shared native Float nearestFloat;

shared actual native Integer predecessor => minus(1);
shared actual native Integer successor => plus(1);

shared actual native Integer neighbour(Integer offset)
=> plus(offset);

shared actual native Integer offset(Integer other)
=> minus(other);

shared actual native Integer offsetSign(Integer other)
=> super.offsetSign(other);

shared actual native Boolean unit => this==1;
shared actual native Boolean zero => this==0;

"Determine if this integer is even.

An integer `i` is even if there exists an integer `k`
such that:

i == 2*k

Thus, `i` is even if and only if `i%2 == 0`."
since("1.1.0")
shared native Boolean even => 2.divides(this);

aliased("absolute")
shared actual native Integer magnitude
=> this < 0 then -this else this;

shared actual native Integer sign
=>   if (this < 0) then -1
else if (this > 0) then 1
else 0;

shared actual native Boolean negative => this < 0;
shared actual native Boolean positive => this > 0;

shared actual native Integer wholePart => this;
shared actual native Integer fractionalPart => 0;

shared actual native Integer timesInteger(Integer integer)
=> times(integer);

shared actual native Integer plusInteger(Integer integer)
=> plus(integer);

"The result of raising this number to the given
non-negative integer power, where `0^0` evaluates to
`1`."
throws (`class AssertionError`,
"if the given [[power|integer]] is negative")
shared actual native Integer powerOfInteger(Integer integer)
=> power(integer);

see (`function formatInteger`)
shared actual native String string;

shared actual native Boolean largerThan(Integer other);
shared actual native Boolean smallerThan(Integer other);
shared actual native Boolean notSmallerThan(Integer other);
shared actual native Boolean notLargerThan(Integer other);

"A [[Byte]] whose [[signed|Byte.signed]] and
[[unsigned|Byte.unsigned]] interpretations are
congruent modulo 256 to this integer."
since("1.1.0")
shared native Byte byte => Byte(this);

}
```